AA Always Afloat

AAAA Always Accessible Always Afloat

AARA Amsterdam-Antwerp-Rotterdam Area

ABOARD On or within the ship

ABOVE DECK On the deck (not over it — see ALOFT)

ABT About

ADDENDUM Additional chartering terms at the end of a charter party

AFFREIGHTMENT The hiring of a ship in whole or part

AFT At or towards the stern or rear of a ship

AGW All Going Well

A/N Arrival Notice — an import document send to the notify party and/or importer’s broker containing all necessary arrival info for Customs clearance; normally with freight charges.

ANCHORAGE A place suitable for anchorage in relation to the wind, seas and bottom

ANTHAM Antwerp-Hamburg Range

ARAG Amsterdam-Rotterdam—Antwerp-Gent Range

ARBITRATION Method of settling disputes which is usually binding on parties. A clause usually in a charter party

A/S Alongside

ASPW Any Safe Port in the World

ATA Actual time of arrival

ATD Actual time of departure

AWB Air waybill


BACKLETTER Where a seller/shipper issues a ‘letter of indemnity’ in favour of the carrier in exchange for a clean bill of lading

BAF Bunker Adjustment Factor. A Fuel Surcharge expressed as a percentage added or subtracted from the freight amount, reflecting the movement in the market placeprice for bunkers.

BALE CAP. Cubic capacity of a vessels holds to carry packaged dry cargo such as bales/pallets

BALLAST Heavy weight, often sea water, necessary for the stability and safety of a ship which is not carrying cargo

BALLAST BONUS Compensation for relatively long ballast voyage

BBB Before Breaking Bulk. Refers to freight payments that must be received before discharge of a vessel commences

BEAM The maximum breadth or the greatest width of a ship

BELOW Beneath the deck

BENDS Both Ends (Load & Discharge Ports)

BIMCO The Baltic and International Maritime Council

BL Bale

B/L (Bill of Lading) A document signed by the carrier which acts as a Contract of Affreightment, a receipt and evidence of title to the cargo.

BM Beam

BN Booking Note

BOFFER Best Offer

BROKERAGE Percentage of freight payable to broker (by owners in c/p’s) or applicable to sale or purchase

BSS Basis

BUNDLING This is the assembly of pieces of cargo, secured into one manageable unit. This is relevant to items such as Structural Steel, Handrails, Stairways etc.Whilst this is a very flexible description, a rule of thumb is to present cargo at a size easily handled by a large (20 tonne) fork lift.

BUNKERS Name given for vessels Fuel and Diesel Oil supplies (Originates from coal bunkers)

BUOY An anchored float used for marking a position on the water or a hazard or a shoal and for mooring


CAF Currency Adjustment Factor. A fee applied to the shipping costs to compensate for exchange rate fluctuations.

CBM Cubic Metres

CBFT (or CFT) Cubic Feet

CFR (or C&F) Cost and Freight

CHTRS Charterers

CIF Cost, Insurance & Freight. Seller pays all these costs to a nominated port or place of discharge.

COA Contract of Affreightment — Owners agree to accept a cost per revenue tonne for cargo carried on a specific number of voyages.

CIP Carriage and Insurance paid to…

C.O. Certificate of Origin — a signed statement from a semiofficial organization certifying the origin of an export item, required by certain nations.

COB Closing of Business

COD Cash On Delivery

COGSA Carriage of Goods by Sea Act

CONGESTION Port/berth delays

CNEE CONSIGNEE. Name of agent, company or person receiving consignment

COP Custom Of Port

CP (or C/P) Charter Party

CPD Charterers Pay Dues

CPT Carriage Paid To

CQD Customary Quick Despatch

CROB Cargo Remaining on Board

CTR Container Fitted


DA Disbursement Account

DAF Deliver At Frontier

DDU Delivered Duty unpaid.

DDP Delivered Duty Paid.

DECK A permanent covering over a compartment, hull or any part thereof

DEM Demurrage (Quay Rent). Money paid by the shipper for the occupying port space beyond a specified «Free Time» period.

DEQ Delivered Ex Quay

DES Delivered Ex Ship

DESP Despatch. Time saved, reward for quick turnaround- in dry cargo only

DET Detention (See DAMFORDET)

DEV Deviation. Vessel departure from specified voyage course

DFRT Deadfreight. Space booked by shipper or charterer on a vessel but not used

DISCH Discharge

DO Diesel Oil

DRAUGHT (or DRAFT) Depth to which a ship is immersed in water. The depth varies according to the design of the ship and will be greater or lesser depending not only on the weight of the ship and everything on board, but also on the density of the water in which the ship is lying.

DUNNAGE Materials of various types, often timber or matting, placed among the cargo for separation, and hence protection from damage, for ventilation and, in the case of certain cargoes, to provide space in which the tynes of a fork lift truck may be inserted.

DWAT (or DWT) Deadweight. Weight of cargo, stores and water, i.e. the difference between lightship and loaded displacement.


EC East Coast

ELVENT Electric Ventilation

ETA Estimated Time of Arrival — the projected date and time a shipment is scheduled to arrive at its destination.

ETC Estimated Time of Completion

ETD Estimated Time of Departure — the projected date and time a shipment is scheduled to depart from the port/airport of origin.

ETS Estimated Time of Sailing

EXW Ex Works


FAS Free Alongside Ship. Seller delivers goods to appropriate dock or terminal at port of embarkation and buyer covers costs and risks of loading

FCA Free to Carrier. A modern equivalent of FAS used in intermodal transport where goods are transferred at a nominated forwarders premises, depot or terminal but not actually on board vessel.

FCL Full Container Load — a container that is fully loaded by cargo, occupying all space, or loaded to the maximum permissable weight. It can contain cargo from multiple shippers, but normally is consigned to the same consignee. The shipment is expected to be delivered to the consignee with the shipper’s seal intact.

FD (FDIS) Free Discharge

FEU Standard 40’ Container, forty-foot equivalent unit, a standard size intermodal container.

FHEX Fridays/Holidays Excluded

FHINC Fridays/Holidays Included

FILO Free In/Liner Out. Seafreight with which the shipper pays load costs and the carrier pays for discharge costs.

FIO Free In/Out. Freight booked FIO includes the seafreight, but no loading/discharging costs, i.e. the charterer pays for cost of loading/discharging cargo.

FIOS Free In/Out Stowed. As per FIO, but excludes stowage costs. FIOST Free In/Out and Trimmed. Charterer pays for cost of loading/discharging cargo, including stowage and trimming.

FIOT Free In/Out and Trimmed. As per FIOS but includes trimming, e.g. the levelling of bulk cargoes. FIOS includes seafreight, but excludes loading/discharging and stowage costs.

FIT Free In Trimmed

FIW Free In Wagon

FIXING Chartering a Vessel

FIXTURE Conclusion of shipbrokers negotiations to charter a ship — an agreement

FLATPACKING Cargo to be presented stacked and secured as an integral unit.

FLT Full Liner Terms

FME Force Majeure Excepted

FO (IFO) Fuel Oil/Intermediate FO

FO Free Out

FOB Free on Board. Seller sees the goods «over the ship’s rail» on to the ship which is arranged and paid for by the buyer

FOFFER Firm Offer

FOG For Our Guidance

FOQ Free On Quay

FOR Free On Rail

FORCE MAJEURE Clause limiting responsibilities of the charterers, shippers and receivers of cargo.

FORWARD Toward the bow of the ship

FOT Free On Truck

FOW First Open Water

FP Free Pratique. Clearance by the Health Authorities

FRT Freight. Money payable on delivery of cargo in a mercantile condition

FREE DESPATCH If loading/discharging achieved sooner than agreed, there will be no freight money returned.

FREE EXINS Free of any Extra Insurance (Owners)

FREE OUT Free of discharge costs to owners. Includes seafreight only.

FYG For Your Guidance

FYI For Your Information


GEAR A general term for ropes, blocks, tackle and other equipment

GLS (GLESS) Gearless


GN (or GR) Grain (Capacity)

GO Gas Oil

GP Grain Capacity. Cubic capacity in ‘grain’

GRD Geared

GRT Gross Registered Tonnage

GSB Good, Safe Berth

GSP Good, Safe Port

GTEE Guarantee


HA Hatch

HAGUE RULES Code of minimum conditions for the carriage of cargo under a Bill of Lading

HATCH An opening in a ship’s deck fitted with a watertight cover

HBF Harmless Bulk Fertilizer

HO Hold

HOLD A compartment below deck in a large vessel, used solely for carrying cargo

HULL The main body of a ship


IMDG International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code

IMO International Maritime Organisation

INCOTERMS (Refer to comments in covering statement on front page A-F)

IND Indication

INTERMODAL Carriage of a commodity by different modes of transport, i.e. sea, road, rail and air within a single journey

ISPS International Ships and Port Security System

ITINERARY Route.Schedule


KEEL The centreline of a ship running fore and aft; the backbone of a vessel

KNOT A measurement of speed equal to one nautical mile (6,076 feet) per hour


LANE METER A method of measuring the space capacity of Ro/Ro ships whereby each unit of space (Linear Meter) is represented by an area of deck 1.0 meter in length x 2.0 meters in width.

LASH To hold goods in position by use of Ropes, Wires, Chains or Straps etc.

LAYCAN Laycan (Layday Cancelling Date)

LAYTIME Time at Charterers disposal for purpose of loading/discharging

L/C Letter of Credit

LCL Less than Container Load — a shipment that takes up only a portion of a consolidated container. LCL shpts are to be picked up at a CFS only, whereas FCL are to be picked up at a container yard/terminal.

LCR Lowest Current Rate

LIEN Retention of property until outstanding debt is paid

LOA Length Overall of the vessel

LOI Letter of Indemnity

LS (or LUMPS) Lumpsum Freight. Money paid to Shipper for a charter of a ship (or portion) up to stated limit irrespective of quantity of cargo

LSD Lashed Secured Dunnaged

LT Liner Terms

LT Long Ton = 1,016.05 kilogram (2,240 lbs)

LTHH Liner Terms Hook/Hook


MANIFEST Inventory of cargo on board

MDO (DO) Marine Diesel Oil

MIDSHIP Approximately in the location equally distant from the bow and stern

MIN/MAX Minimum/Maximum (cargo quantity)

MOORING An arrangement for securing a ship to a mooring buoy or pier

MT Mertic Tonne (i.e. 1,000 kilos)

M/V Motor Vessel / Merchant Vessel


NM Nautical Mile. One minute of latitude; approximately 6,076 feet — about 1/8 longer than the statute mile of 5,280 feet

NON-REVERSIBLE (Detention). If loading completed sooner than expected, then saved days will not be added to discharge time allowed.

NOR Notice of Readiness

NRT Net Restricted Tonnage


OO Owners Option

OWS Owners


P&I Protection and Indemnity Insurance

PCGO Part Cargo

PCT Percent

PDPR Per Day Pro Rata

PHPD Per Hatch Per Day

PRATIQUE Licence or permission to use a port

PWWD Per Weather Working Day


RCVR Receiver

RECAP Recapitulation of the terms and conditions agreed

REVERSIBLE (Detention). If loading completed sooner than expected at load port, then days saved can be added to discharge operations.

ROB Remaining On Board


SATPM Saturday P.M.

SB Safe Berth

SD (or SID) Single Decker

SEAFREIGHT Costs charged for transporting goods over the sea. This does not cover haulage or loading/discharging costs but the sea transport only

SEMI-TRAILERS Are usually 12.0 meter flat bed road trailers

SF Stowage Factor. Cubic space (measurement tonne) occupied by one tonne (2,240 lbs/1,000 kgs) of cargo

SHINC Sundays/Holidays Included

SHEX Sundays/Holidays Excluded

SHPR Shipper — the party in whose name a contract of carriage of goods has been concluded with at carrier or any party by whom, in whose name or on whose behalf the goods are actually delivered to the carrier in relation to the contract of carriage.

SOC Shipper Owned Container

SOF Statement of Facts

SP Safe Port

SSHEX Saturdays, Sundays, Holidays Excluded

SSHINC (or SATSHINC) Saturdays, Sundays, Holidays Included

STABILITY It is paramount that a vessel is stable in all aspects at all times. When cargo is loaded/discharged, the stability is monitored by a computer, which takes into account the weight and position of cargo within the vessel.

STERN The aformost or after part of a ship

SUB Subject (to). Depending upon as a condition


TBN To Be Named / To Be Nominated

TEU Standard 20′ Container, twenty-foot equivalent unit, a standard size intermodal container.

T/S Transhipment — a shipping arrangement in which a shipment is discharged of the vessel at an intermediate port enroute and subsequently reloaded to another vessel for carriage to its final destinationl

TRIM Fore and aft balance of a ship

TTL Total


WATERLINE A line painted on a hull which shows the point to which a ship sin